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A light, powerful and quick Reactive State Management, Dependency Injection and Event Management.

Reactter


Pub Publisher Reactter Flutter Reactter Pub points MIT License GitHub Workflow Status Codecov

A light, powerful and quick Reactive State Management, Dependency Injection and Event Management.

Features #

  • ⚡️ Engineered for Speed.
  • ⚖️ Super Lightweight(🥇 See benchmarks).
  • 📏 Reduce Boilerplate Code significantly(🥇 See benchmarks).
  • ✏️ Improve Code Readability.
  • 💧 Flexible and Adaptable to any architecture.
  • ☢️ Reactive States using Signal and Hooks.
  • ♻️ Reusable States and Logic with Custom hooks.
  • 🎮 Fully Rendering Control.
  • 🧪 Fully Testable, 100% code coverage.
  • 🪄 Zero Configuration and No Code Generation necessary.
  • 💙 Compatible with Dart and Flutter, supports the latest version of Dart.

Let's see a small and simple example:

// Create a reactive state using `Signal`
final count = Signal(0);

void main() {
  // Change the `value` in any time(e.g., each 1 second).
  Timer.periodic(
    Duration(seconds: 1), 
    (_) => count.value++,
  );

  // Put on listen `didUpdate` event, whitout use `Stream`
  Reactter.on(
    count,
    Lifecycle.didUpdate,
    (_, __) => print('Count: $count'),
  );

  // And you can use in flutter, e.g:
  runApp(
    MaterialApp(
      home: Scaffold(
        body: ReactterWatcher(
          // Just use it, and puts it in listening mode
          // for further rendering automatically.
          builder: (_, __) => Text("Count: $count"),
        ),
      ),
    ),
  );
}

Clean and easy!

See more examples here!

Contents #

Quickstart #

Before anything, you need to be aware that Reactter is distributed on two packages, with slightly different usage.

The package of Reactter that you will want to install depends on the type of project you are working on.

Select one of the following options to know how to install it:

Dart only  Reactter

Add the package on your project.

  • Using command:

    dart pub add reactter
    
  • Or put directly into pubspec.yaml file:

      dependencies:
        reactter: #add version here
    

    and run dart pub get.

Now in your Dart code, you can use:

import 'package:reactter/reactter.dart';

Flutter  Flutter Reactter

Add the package on your project.

  • Using command:

    flutter pub add flutter_reactter
    
  • Or put directly into pubspec.yaml file:

      dependencies:
        flutter_reactter: #add version here
    

    and run flutter pub get.

Now in your Dart code, you can use:

import 'package:flutter_reactter/flutter_reactter.dart';

And it is recommended to use Reactter Lint which will help to encourage good coding practices and prevent frequent problems using the Reactter convensions.

If you use Visual Studio Code, it is a good idea to use Reactter Snippets for improving productivity.

About Reactter #

Reactter is a light and powerful solution for Dart and Flutter. It is composed of three main concepts that can be used together to create maintainable and scalable applications, which are:

Moreover, Reactter offers an extensive collection of widgets and extensions, granting advanced rendering control through the flutter_reactter package.

State management #

In Reactter, state is understood as any object that extends ReactterState, endowing it with capabilities such as the ability to store one or more values and to broadcast notifications of its changes.

Reactter offers the following several state managers:

NOTE: The hooks (also known as ReactterHook) are named with the prefix Use according to convention.

RECOMMENDED: See also difference between Signal and UseState and about custom hooks.

Signal #

Signal is an object (that extends ReactterState) which has a value and notifies about its changes.

It can be initialized using the constructor class Signal<T>(T initialValue):

final intSignal = Signal<int>(0);
final strSignal = Signal("initial value");
final userSignal = Signal(User());

Signal has a value property that allows to read and write its state:

intSignal.value = 10;
print("Current state: ${intSignal.value}");

or also can use the callable function:

intSignal(10);
print("Current state: ${intSignal()}");

or simply use .toString() implicit to get its value as String:

print("Current state: $intSignal");

NOTE: Signal notifies that its value has changed when the previous value is different from the current value. If its value is an Object, it does not detect internal changes, only when value is setted to another Object.

Use update method to notify changes after run a set of instructions:

userSignal.update((user) {
  user.firstname = "Firstname";
  user.lastname = "Lastname";
});

Use refresh method to force to notify changes.

userSignal.refresh();

When value has changed, the Signal will emit the following events(learn about it here):

  • Lifecycle.willUpdate event is triggered before the value change or update, refresh methods have been invoked.
  • Lifecycle.didUpdate event is triggered after the value change or update, refresh methods have been invoked.

NOTE: When you do any arithmetic operation between two Signals, it returns an Obj, for example: signal(1) + Signal(2) returns Obj(3). An Obj is like a Signal without reactive functionality, but you can convert it to Signal using .toSignal.

NOTE: In flutter, using ReactterWatcher, is a way to keep the widgets automatically updates, accessing the value of signal reactively.

UseState #

UseState is a hook(ReactterHook) that allows to declare state variables and manipulate its value, which in turn notifies about its changes.

UseState<T>(T initialValue)

UseState accepts a property:

  • initialValue: is a unique value of any type that you use to initialize the state.

It can be declared inside a class, like this:

class CounterController {
  final count = UseState(0);
}

NOTE: if your variable hook is late use Reactter.lazyState. Learn about it here.

UseState has a value property that allows to read and write its state:

class CounterController {
  final count = UseState(0);

  CounterController() {
    print("Prev state: ${count.value}");
    count.value = 10;
    print("Current state: ${count.value}");
  }
}

NOTE: UseState notifies that its value has changed when the previous value is different from the current value. If its value is an Object, it does not detect internal changes, only when value is setted to another Object.

Use update method to notify changes after run a set of instructions:

userState.update((user) {
  user.firstname = "Firstname";
  user.lastname = "Lastname";
});

Use refresh method to force to notify changes.

userState.refresh();

When value has changed, the UseState will emitted the following events(learn about it here):

  • Lifecycle.willUpdate event is triggered before the value change or update, refresh methods have been invoked.
  • Lifecycle.didUpdate event is triggered after the value change or update, refresh methods have been invoked.

UseAsyncState #

UseAsyncState is a hook (ReactterHook) with the same feature as UseState but its value will be lazily resolved by a function(asyncFunction).

UseAsyncState<T>(
  T initialValue,
  Future<T> asyncFunction(),
);

UseAsyncState accepts theses properties:

  • initialValue: is a unique value of any type that you use to initialize the state.
  • asyncFunction: is a function that will be called by the resolved method and sets the value of the state.

Use UseAsyncState.withArg to pass a argument to the asyncFunction.

UseAsyncState.withArg<T, A>(
  T initialValue,
  Future<T> asyncFunction(A) ,
)

NOTE: if your variable hook is late use Reactter.lazyState. Learn about it here.

This is a translate example:

class TranslateController {
  final translateState = UseAsyncStates.withArg(
    null,
    (ArgsX3<String> args) async {
      final text = args.arg;
      final from = args.arg2;
      final to = args.arg3;
      // this is fake code, which simulates a request to API
      return await api.translate(text, from, to);
    }
  );

  TranslateController() {
    translateState.resolve(
      Args3('Hello world', 'EN','ES'),
    ).then((_) {
      print("'Hello world' translated to Spanish: '${translateState.value}'");
    });
  }
}

RECOMMENDED: If you wish to optimize the state resolution, the best option is to use the memoization technique. Reactter provides this using Memo(Learn about it here), e.g:

[...]
final translateState = UseAsyncState.withArg<String?, ArgsX3<String>>(
  null,
  /// `Memo` stores the value resolved in cache,
  /// and retrieving that same value from the cache the next time
  /// it's needed instead of resolving it again.
  Memo.inline(
    (ArgsX3<String> args) async {
      final text = args.arg;
      final from = args.arg2;
      final to = args.arg3;
      // this is fake code, which simulates a request to API
      return await api.translate(text, from, to);
    },
    AsyncMemoSafe(), // avoid to save in cache when throw a error
  ),
);
[...]

RECOMMENDED: In the above example uses Args(generic arguments), but using Record instead is recommended if your project supports it.

Use the when method to return a computed value depending on it's state:

final computedValue = asyncState.when<String>(
  standby: (value) => "🔵 Standby: $value",
  loading: (value) => "⏳ Loading...",
  done: (value) => "✅ Resolved: $value",
  error: (error) => "❌ Error: $error",
);

When value has changed, the UseAsyncState will emit the following events (learn about it here):

  • Lifecycle.willUpdate event is triggered before the value change or update, refresh methods have been invoked.
  • Lifecycle.didUpdate event is triggered after the value change or update, refresh methods have been invoked.

UseReducer #

UseReducer is a hook(ReactterHook) that manages state using reducer method. An alternative to UseState.

RECOMMENDED: UseReducer is usually preferable over UseState when you have complex state logic that involves multiple sub-values or when the next state depends on the previous one.

 UseReducer<T>(
   T reducer(T state, ReactterAction<dynamic> action),
   T initialState,
 );

UseReducer accepts two properties:

  • reducer: is a method contains your custom state logic that calculates the new state using current state, and actions.
  • initialState: is a unique value of any type that you use to initialize the state.

UseReducer exposes a dispatch method that allows you to invoke the reducer method sending a ReactterAction.

The current state can be accessed through the value property.

Here's the counter example using UseReducer:

class Store {
 final int count;

 Store({this.count = 0});
}

Store reducer(Store state, ReactterAction<int?> action) {
 switch (action.type) {
   case 'INCREMENT':
     return Store(count: state.count + (action.payload ?? 1));
   case 'DECREMENT':
     return Store(count: state.count + (action.payload ?? 1));
   default:
     throw UnimplementedError();
 }
}

class CounterController {
 final useCounter = UseReducer(reducer, Store(count: 0));

 CounterController() {
   print("count: ${useCounter.value.count}"); // count: 0;
   useCounter.dispatch(ReactterAction(type: 'INCREMENT', payload: 2));
   print("count: ${useCounter.value.count}"); // count: 2;
   useCounter.dispatch(ReactterAction(type: 'DECREMENT'));
   print("count: ${useCounter.value.count}"); // count: 1;
 }
}

The actions can be created as a callable class, extending from ReactterActionCallable and used as follows:

class IncrementAction extends ReactterActionCallable<Store, int> {
  IncrementAction([int quantity = 1]) : super(
    type: 'INCREEMNT', payload: quantity
  );

  @override
  Store call(Store state) => Store(count: state.count + payload);
}

class DecrementAction extends ReactterActionCallable<Store, int> {
  DecrementAction([int quantity = 1]) : super(
    type: 'DECREMENT', payload: quantity
  );

  @override
  Store call(Store state) => Store(count: state.count - payload);
}

Store reducer(Store state, ReactterAction action) {
  if (action is ReactterActionCallable) return action(state);

  return  UnimplementedError();
}

class CounterController {
  final useCounter = UseReducer(reducer , Store(count: 0));

  CounterController() {
    print("count: ${useCounter.value.count}"); // count: 0;
    useCounter.dispatch(IncrementAction(2));
    print("count: ${useCounter.value.count}"); // count: 2;
    useCounter.dispatch(DecrementAction());
    print("count: ${useCounter.value.count}"); // count: 1;
  }
}

When value has changed, the UseReducer will emit the following events (learn about it here):

  • Lifecycle.willUpdate event is triggered before the value change or update, refresh methods have been invoked.
  • Lifecycle.didUpdate event is triggered after the value change or update, refresh methods have been invoked.

UseCompute #

UseCompute is a hook(ReactterHook) that keeps listening for state dependencies changes, to return a computed value(T) from a defined method(computeValue).

UseCompute<T>(
  T computeValue(),
  List<ReactterState> dependencies,
)

UseCompute accepts two arguments:

  • computeValue: is a method is called whenever there is a change in any of the dependencies, and it is responsible for calculating and setting the computed value.
  • dependencies: is a list of states that UseCompute keeps an active watch on, listening for any changes that may occur for calling the computeValue function.

so, here is an example:

class MyController {
  final stateA = UseState(1);
  final stateB = UseState(7);

  late final computeState = Reactter.lazyState(
    () => UseCompute(
      // The `clamp` is a method that returns this num clamped
      // to be in the range lowerLimit-upperLimit(e.g., 10-15).
      () => addAB().clamp(10, 15),
      [stateA, stateB],
    ),
  );

  int addAB() => stateA.value + stateB.value;
  void printResult() => print("${addAB()} -> ${computeState.value}");

  MyController() {
    printResult(); // 8 -> 10
    stateA.value += 1; // Will not notify change
    printResult(); // 9 -> 10
    stateB.value += 2; // Will notify change
    printResult(); // 11 -> 11
    stateA.value += 6; // Will notify change
    printResult(); // 17 -> 15
    stateB.value -= 1; // Will not notify change
    printResult(); // 16 -> 15
    stateA.value -= 8; // Will notify change
    printResult(); // 8 -> 10
  }
}

UseCompute has a value property which represents the computed value.

NOTE: UseCompute notifies that its value has changed when the previous value is different from the current value.

When value has changed, the UseState will emit the following events (learn about it here):

  • Lifecycle.willUpdate event is triggered before the value change or update, refresh methods have been invoked.
  • Lifecycle.didUpdate event is triggered after the value change or update, refresh methods have been invoked.

NOTE: UseCompute is read-only, meaning that its value cannot be changed, except by invoking the computeValue method.

RECOMENDED: UseCompute does not cache the computed value, meaning it recalculates the value when its depenencies has changes, potentially impacting performance, especially if the computation is expensive. In these cases, you should consider using Memo(learn about it here) in the following manner:

  late final myUseComputeMemo = Reactter.lazyState((){
    final addAB = Memo(
      (Args2 args) => args.arg1 + args.arg2,
    );

    return UseCompute(
      () => addAB(
        Args2(stateA.value, stateB.value),
      ),
      [stateA, stateB],
    ),
  }, this);

Dependency injection #

With Reactter, you can create, delete and access the desired object from a single location, and you can do it from anywhere in the code, thanks to reactter's dependency injection system.

Dependency injection offers several benefits. It promotes the principle of inversion of control, where the control over object creation and management is delegated to Reactter. This improves code modularity, reusability, and testability. It also simplifies the code by removing the responsibility of creating dependencies from individual classes, making them more focused on their core functionality.

Reactter has three ways to manage an instance, which are:

Reactter offers the following several instance managers:

by flutter_reactter:

Builder #

Builder is a ways to manage an instance, which registers a builder function and creates the instance, unless it has already done so.

In builder mode, when the dependency tree no longer needs it, it is completely deleted, including deregistration (deleting the builder function).

Reactter identifies the builder mode as InstanceManageMode.builder and it's using for default.

NOTE: Builder uses less RAM than Factory and Singleton, but it consumes more CPU than the other modes.

Factory #

Factory is a ways to manage an instance, which registers a builder function only once and creates the instance if not already done.

In factory mode, when the dependency tree no longer needs it, the instance is deleted and the builder function is kept in the register.

Reactter identifies the factory mode as InstanceManageMode.factory and to active it, set it in the mode argument of Reactter.register and Reactter.create, or use Reactter.lazyFactory, Reactter.factory.

NOTE: Factory uses more RAM than Builder but not more than Singleton, and consumes more CPU than Singleton but not more than Builder.

Singleton #

Singleton is a ways to manage an instance, which registers a builder function and creates the instance only once.

The singleton mode preserves the instance and its states, even if the dependency tree stops using it.

Reactter identifies the singleton mode as InstanceManageMode.singleton and to active it, set it in the mode argument of Reactter.register and Reactter.create, or use Reactter.lazySingleton, Reactter.singleton.

NOTE: Use Reactter.destroy if you want to force destroy the instance and its register.

NOTE: Singleton consumes less CPU than Builder and Factory, but uses more RAM than the other modes.

Shortcuts to manage instances #

Reactter offers several convenient shortcuts for managing instances:

In each of the events methods shown above (except Reactter.isRegister and Reactter.getInstanceManageMode), it provides the id argument for managing the instances of the same type by a unique identity.

NOTE: The scope of the registered instances is global. This indicates that using the shortcuts to manage instance or UseInstance will allow you to access them from anywhere in the project.

UseInstance #

UseInstance is a hook(ReactterHook) that allows to manage an instance.

UseInstance<T>([String? id]);

The default constructor uses Reactter.find to get the instance of the T type with or without id that is available.

NOTE: The instance that you need to get, must be created by Dependency injection before.

Use instance getter to get the instance.

Here is an example using UseIntance:

class MyController {
  final useAuthController = UseInstance<AuthController>();
  // final useOtherControllerWithId = UseInstance<OtherController>("UniqueId");

  AuthController? authController = useAuthController.instance;

  MyController() {
    UseEffect(() {
      authController = useAuthController.instance;
    }, [useAuthController],
    );
  }
}

NOTE: In the example above uses UseEffect hook, to wait for the instance to become available.

UseInstance provides some constructors and factories for managing an instance, which are:

In each of the contructors or factories above shown, it provides the id property for managing the instances of the same type by a unique identity.

NOTE: The scope of the registered instances is global. This indicates that using the shortcuts to manage instance or UseInstance will allow you to access them from anywhere in the project.

Event management #

In Reactter, event management plays a pivotal role in facilitating seamless communication and coordination between various components within the application. The event management system is designed to ensure efficient handling of states and instances, fostering a cohesive ecosystem where different parts of the application can interact harmoniously.

One of the key aspects of event management in Reactter is the introduction of lifecycles linked to events. These lifecycles define the different stages through which a state or instance passes, offering a structured flow and effective handling of changes.

Additionally, Reactter offers the following event managers:

by flutter_reactter:

Lifecycles #

In Reactter, both the states (ReactterState) and the instances (managed by the dependency injection) contain different stages, also known as Lifecycle. This lifecycles linked events, which are:

  • Lifecycle.registered: is triggered when the instance has been registered.
  • Lifecycle.unregistered: is triggered when the instance is no longer registered.
  • Lifecycle.initialized: is triggered when the instance has been initialized.
  • Lifecycle.willMount (exclusive of flutter_reactter): is triggered when the instance is going to be mounted in the widget tree.
  • Lifecycle.didMount (exclusive of flutter_reactter): is triggered after the instance has been successfully mounted in the widget tree.
  • Lifecycle.willUpdate: is triggered anytime the instance's state is about to be updated. The event parameter is a ReactterState.
  • Lifecycle.didUpdate: is triggered anytime the instance's state has been updated. The event parameter is a ReactterState.
  • Lifecycle.willUnmount(exclusive of flutter_reactter): is triggered when the instance is about to be unmounted from the widget tree.
  • Lifecycle.didUnmount(exclusive of flutter_reactter): is triggered when the instance has been successfully unmounted from the widget tree.
  • Lifecycle.destroyed: is triggered when the instance has been destroyed.

You can extend your instances with LifecycleObserver mixin for observing and reacting to the various lifecycle events. e.g:

class MyController with LifecycleObserver {
  final state = UseState('initial');

  @override
  void onInitialized() {
    print("MyController has been initialized");
  }

  @override
  void onDidUpdate(ReactterState? state) {
    print("$state has been changed");
  }
}

final myController = Reactter.create(() => MyController());
// MyController has been initialized
myController.state.value = "value changed";
// state has been changed

Shortcuts to manage events #

Reactter offers several convenient shortcuts for managing events:

  • Reactter.on: turns on the listen event. When the event of instance is emitted, the callback is called:

    Reactter.on<T, P>(Object instance, Enum event, callback(T inst, P params));
    
  • Reactter.one: turns on the listen event for only once. When the event of instance is emitted, the callback is called and then removed.

    Reactter.one<T, P>(Object instance, Enum event, callback(T inst, P param));
    
  • Reactter.off: removes the callback from event of instance.

    Reactter.off<T, P>(Object instance, Enum event, callback(T instance, P param));
    
  • Reactter.offAll: removes all events of instance.

    Reactter.offAll(Object instance);
    

    IMPORTANT: Don't use it, if you're not sure. Because it will remove all events, even those events that Reactter needs to work properly. Instead, use Reactter.off to remove the specific events.

  • Reactter.emit: triggers an event of instance with or without the param given.

    Reactter.emit(Object instance, Enum event, [dynamic param]);
    

In each of the methods it receives as first parameter an instance that can be directly the instance object or use ReactterInstance instead:

void onDidUpdate(inst, state) => print("Instance: $inst, state: $state");

final myController = Reactter.get<MyController>();
// or using `ReactterIntance`
final myController = ReactterInstance<MyController>();

Reactter.on(myController, Lifecycle.didUpdate, onDidUpdate);
Reactter.emit(myController, Lifecycle.didUpdate, 'test param');

RECOMMENDED: Use the instance object directly on event methods for optimal performance.

NOTE: The ReactterInstance helps to find the instance for event, if the instance not exists, put it on wait. It's a good option if you're not sure that the instance has been created yet.

UseEffect #

UseEffect is a hook(ReactterHook) that allows to manage side-effect.

UseEffect(
  <Function cleanup> Function() callback,
  List<ReactterState> dependencies,
)

The side-effect logic into the callback function is executed when the dependencies argument changes or the instance trigger Lifecycle.didMount event.

If the callback returns a function, then UseEffect considers this as an effect cleanup. The cleanup callback is executed, before callback is called or instance trigger Lifecycle.willUnmount event:

Let's see an example with a counter that increments every second:

class MyController {
  final count = UseState(0);

  MyController() {
    UseEffect((){
      // Execute by count state changed or 'Lifecycle.didMount' event
      print("Count: ${count.value}");
      Future.delayed(const Duration(seconds: 1), () => count.value += 1);

      return () {
        // Cleanup - Execute before count state changed or 'Lifecycle.willUnmount' event
        print("Cleanup executed");
      };
    }, [count]);
  }
}

Use UseEffect.runOnInit to execute the callback effect on initialization.

UseEffect.runOnInit(
  () => print("Excute immediately and by hook changes"),
  [someState],
);

Rendering control #

Rendering control provides the capability to observe specific instances or states, triggering re-renders of the widget tree as required. This methodology ensures a unified and responsive user interface, facilitating efficient updates based on changes in the application's state.

In this context, the flutter_reactter package provides the following purpose-built widgets and certain BuildContext extension for rendering control:

ReactterProvider #

ReactterProvider is a Widget (exclusive of flutter_reactter) that hydrates from an instance of T type to the Widget tree.

ReactterProvider<T>(
  T instanceBuilder(), {
  String? id,
  bool init = false,
  InstanceManageMode type = InstanceManageMode.builder,
  Widget? child,
  required Widget builder(BuilderContext context, T instance, Widget? child),
})

ReactterProvider accepts theses properties:

  • instanceBuilder: to define a method for the creation of a new instance of T type.

    RECOMMENDED: Don't use Object with constructor parameters to prevent conflicts.

  • id: to uniquely identify the instance.

  • init: to indicate that the instance must be initialized before the ReactterProvider is mounted.

  • mode: to determine the instance manage mode(Builder, Factory or Singleton).

  • child: to pass a Widget through the builder method that it will be built only once.

  • builder: to define a method that contains the builder logic of the widget that will be embedded in the widget tree. This method exposes the instance(T) created, a new context(BuildContext) and a child(Widget) defined in the child property.

Here is an example:

ReactterProvider<CounterController>(
  () => CounterController(),
  child: const Text('This widget is rendered once'),
  builder: (context, counterController, child) {
    // `context.watch` listens any CounterController changes for rebuild this widget tree.
    context.watch<CounterController>();

    // Change the `value` each 1 second.
    Future.delayed(Duration(seconds: 1), (_) => counterController.count.value++);

    return Column(
      children: [
        child!, // The child widget has already been built in `child` property.
        Text("count: ${counterController.count.value}"),
      ],
    );
  },
)

Use ReactterProvider.lazy to enable lazy-loading of the instance, ensuring it is only instantiated when necessary. While this feature enhances performance by deferring instantiation until required, it's important to note that it may result in the loss of lifecycle tracing.

NOTE: ReactteProvider is "scoped". So, the builder method will be rebuild when the instance or any ReactterState specified in BuildContext.watch or BuildContext.select changes.

ReactterProviders #

ReactterProviders is a Widget (exclusive of flutter_reactter) that allows to use multiple ReactterProvider in a nested way.

ReactterProviders(
  [
    ReactterProvider(
      () => MyController(),
    ),
    ReactterProvider(
      () => ConfigController(),
      id: 'App',
    ),
    ReactterProvider(
      () => ConfigController(),
      id: 'Dashboard'
    ),
  ],
  builder: (context, child) {
    final myController = context.use<MyController>();
    final appConfigController = context.use<ConfigController>('App');
    final dashboardConfigController = context.use<ConfigController>('Dashboard');
    ...
  },
)

RECOMMENDED: Don't use Object with constructor parameters to prevent conflicts.

NOTE: ReactteProvider is "scoped". So, the builder method will be rebuild when the instance or any ReactterState specified in BuildContext.watch or BuildContext.select changes.

ReactterComponent #

ReactterComponent is a abstract StatelessWidget (exclusive of flutter_reactter) that provides ReactterProvider features, whose instance of T type is exposed trough render method.

class CounterComponent extends ReactterComponent<CounterController> {
  const CounterComponent({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  @override
  get builder => () => CounterController();

  @override
  void listenStates(counterController) => [counterController.count];

  @override
  Widget render(context, counterController) {
    return Text("Count: ${counterController.count.value}");
  }
}

Use builder getter to define the instance builder function.

RECOMMENDED: Don't use Object with constructor parameters to prevent conflicts.

NOTE: If you don't use builder getter, the instance will not be created. Instead, an attempt will be made to locate it within the closest ancestor where it was initially created.

Use the id getter to identify the instance of T:

Use the listenStates getter to define the states that will rebuild the tree of the widget defined in the render method whenever it changes.

Use the listenAll getter as true to listen to all the instance changes to rebuild the Widget tree defined in the render method.

ReactterConsumer #

ReactterConsumer is a Widget (exclusive of flutter_reactter) that allows to access the instance of T type from ReactterProvider's nearest ancestor and can listen all or specified states to rebuild the Widget when theses changes occur:

ReactterConsumer<T>({
  String? id,
  bool listenAll = false,
  List<ReactterState> listenStates(T instance)?,
  Widget? child,
  required Widget builder(BuildContext context, T instance, Widget? child),
});

ReactterConsumer accepts theses properties:

  • id: to uniquely identify the instance.
  • listenAll: to listen to all events emitted by the instance or its states(ReactterState).
  • listenStates: to listen to states(ReactterState) defined in it.
  • child: to pass a Widget through the builder method that it will be built only once.
  • builder: to define a method that contains the builder logic of the widget that will be embedded in the widget tree. This method exposes the instance(T) created, a new context(BuildContext) and a child(Widget) defined in the child property.

Here is an example:

class ExampleWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  ...
  Widget build(context) {
    return ReactterConsumer<MyController>(
      listenStates: (inst) => [inst.stateA, inst.stateB],
      child: const Text('This widget is rendered once'),
      builder: (context, myController, child) {
        // This is built when stateA or stateB has changed.
        return Column(
          children: [
            Text("My instance: $d"),
            Text("StateA: ${d.stateA.value}"),
            Text("StateB: ${d.stateB.value}"),
            child!, // The child widget has already been built in `child` property.
          ],
        );
      }
    );
  }
}

NOTE: ReactteConsumer is "scoped". So, the builder method will be rebuild when the instance or any ReactterState specified get change.

NOTE: Use ReactterSelector for more specific conditional state when you want the widget tree to be re-rendered.

ReactterSelector #

ReactterSelector is a Widget (exclusive of flutter_reactter) that allows to control the rebuilding of widget tree by selecting the states(ReactterState) and a computed value.

ReactterSelector<T, V>(
  V selector(
    T inst,
    ReactterState $(ReactterState state),
  ),
  String? id,
  Widget? child,
  Widget builder(
    BuildContext context,
    T inst,
    V value,
    Widget? child
  ),
)

ReactterSelector accepts four properties:

  • selector: to define a method that contains the computed value logic and determined when to be rebuilding the widget tree which defined in build property. It returns a value of V type and exposes the following arguments:
    • inst: the found instance of T type and by id if specified it.
    • $: a method that allows to wrap to the state(ReactterState) to put it in listening.
  • id: to uniquely identify the instance.
  • child: to pass a Widget through the builder method that it will be built only once.
  • builder: to define a method that contains the builder logic of the widget that will be embedded in the widget tree. It exposes the following arguments:
    • context: a new BuilContext.
    • inst: the found instance of T type and by id if specified it.
    • value: the computed value of V type. It is computed by selector method.
    • child: a Widget defined in the child property.

ReactterSelector determines if the widget tree of builder needs to be rebuild again by comparing the previous and new result of selector. This evaluation only occurs if one of the selected states(ReactterState) gets updated, or by the instance if the selector does not have any selected states(ReactterState). e.g.:

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  const MyApp({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  @override
  Widget? build(BuildContext context) {
    return ReactterProvider<MyController>(
      () => MyController(),
      builder: (context, inst, child) {
        return OtherWidget();
      }
    );
  }
}

class OtherWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  const OtherWidget({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  @override
  Widget? build(BuildContext context) {
    return ReactterSelector<MyController, int>(
      selector: (inst, $) => $(inst.stateA).value % $(inst.stateB).value,
      builder: (context, inst, value, child) {
        // This is rebuilt every time that the result of selector is different to previous result.
        return Text("${inst.stateA.value} mod ${inst.stateB.value}: ${value}");
      },
    );
  }
}

ReactterSelector typing can be ommited, but the app must be wrapper by ReactterScope. e.g.:

[...]
ReactterScope(
  child: MyApp(),
)
[...]

class OtherWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  const OtherWidget({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  @override
  Widget? build(BuildContext context) {
    final myController = context.use<MyController>();

    return ReactterSelector(
      selector: (_, $) => $(myController.stateA).value % $(myController.stateB).value,
      builder: (context, _, value, child) {
        // This is rebuilt every time that the result of selector is different to previous result.
        return Text("${myController.stateA.value} mod ${myController.stateB.value}: ${value}");
      },
    );
}

ReactterWatcher #

ReactterWatcher is a Widget (exclusive of flutter_reactter) that allows to listen all Signals contained in builder property and rebuilt the Widget when it changes:

ReactterWatcher({
  Widget? child,
  required Widget builder(BuildContext context, Widget? child),
})

ReactterWatcher accepts two properties:

  • child: to pass a Widget through the builder method that it will be built only once.
  • builder: to define a method that contains the builder logic of the widget that will be embedded in the widget tree. It exposes the following arguments:
    • context: a new BuilContext.
    • child: a Widget defined in the child property.
final count = Signal(0);
final flag = Signal(false);

void increase() => count.value += 1;
void toggle() => flag(!flag.value);

class App extends StatelessWidget {
  ...
  Widget build(context) {
    return ReactterWatcher(
      // This widget is rendered once only and passed through the `builder` method.
      child: Row(
        children: const [
          ElevatedButton(
            onPressed: increase,
            child: Text("Increase"),
          ),
          ElevatedButton(
            onPressed: toggle,
            child: Text("Toogle"),
          ),
        ],
      ),
      builder: (context, child) {
        // Rebuilds the Widget tree returned when `count` or `flag` are updated.
        return Column(
          children: [
            Text("Count: $count"),
            Text("Flag is: $flag"),
            child!,  // Takes the Widget from the `child` property in each rebuild.
          ],
        );
      },
    );
  }
}

BuildContext.use #

BuildContext.use is an extension method of the BuildContext, that allows to access to instance of T type from the closest ancestor ReactterProvider.

T context.use<T>([String? id])

Here is an example:

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  const MyApp({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  @override
  Widget? build(BuildContext context) {
    return ReactterProvider<MyController>(
      () => MyController(),
      builder: (context, inst, child) {
        return OtherWidget();
      }
    );
  }
}

class OtherWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  const OtherWidget({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  @override
  Widget? build(BuildContext context) {
    final myController = context.use<MyController>();

    return Text("value: ${myController.stateA.value}");
  }
}

Use the first argument for obtaining the instance by id. e.g.:

  final myControllerById = context.use<MyController>('uniqueId');

Use the nullable type to safely get the instance, avoiding exceptions if the instance is not found, and get null instead. e.g.:

  final myController = context.use<MyController?>();

NOTE: If T is non-nullable and the instance is not found, it will throw ProviderNullException.

BuildContext.watch #

BuildContext.watch is an extension method of the BuildContext, that allows to access to instance of T type from the closest ancestor ReactterProvider, and listen to the instance or ReactterState list for rebuilding the widget tree in the scope of BuildContext.

T context.watch<T>(
  List<ReactterState> listenStates(T inst)?,
)

Here is an example, that shows how to listen an instance and react for rebuild:

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  const MyApp({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  @override
  Widget? build(BuildContext context) {
    return ReactterProvider<MyController>(
      () => MyController(),
      builder: (context, inst, child) {
        return OtherWidget();
      }
    );
  }
}

class OtherWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  const OtherWidget({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  @override
  Widget? build(BuildContext context) {
    final myController = context.watch<MyController>();
    // This is rebuilt every time any states in the instance are updated
    return Text("value: ${myController.stateA.value}");
  }
}

Use the first argument(listenStates) to specify the states that are to be listen on for rebuild. e.g.:

[...]
  @override
  Widget? build(BuildContext context) {
    final myController = context.watch<MyController>(
      (inst) => [inst.stateA, inst.stateB],
    );
    // This is rebuilt every time any defined states are updated
    return Text("value: ${myController.stateA.value}");
  }
[...]

Use BuildContext.watchId for obtaining the instance of T type by id, and listens the instance or ReactterState list for rebuilding the widget tree in the scope of BuildContext.

T context.watchId<T>(
  String id,
  List<ReactterState> listenStates(T inst)?,
)

It is used as follows:

// for listening the instance
final myControllerById = context.watchId<MyController>('uniqueId');
// for listening the states
final myControllerById = context.watchId<MyController>(
  'uniqueId',
  (inst) => [inst.stateA, inst.stateB],
);

BuildContext.select #

BuildContext.select is an extension method of the BuildContext, that allows to control the rebuilding of widget tree by selecting the states(ReactterState) and a computed value.

V context.select<T, V>(
  V selector(
    T inst,
    ReactterState $(ReactterState state),
  ),
  [String? id],
)

BuildContext.select accepts two argtuments:

  • selector: to define a method that computed value logic and determined when to be rebuilding the widget tree of the BuildContext. It returns a value of V type and exposes the following arguments:
    • inst: the found instance of T type and by id if specified it.
    • $: a method that allows to wrap to the state(ReactterState) to put it in listening.
  • id: to uniquely identify the instance.

BuildContext.select determines if the widget tree in scope of BuildContext needs to be rebuild again by comparing the previous and new result of selector. This evaluation only occurs if one of the selected states(ReactterState) gets updated, or by the instance if the selector does not have any selected states(ReactterState). e.g.:

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  const MyApp({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  @override
  Widget? build(BuildContext context) {
    return ReactterProvider<MyController>(
      () => MyController(),
      builder: (context, inst, child) {
        return OtherWidget();
      }
    );
  }
}

class OtherWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  const OtherWidget({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  @override
  Widget? build(BuildContext context) {
    final value = context.select<MyController, int>(
      (inst, $) => $(inst.stateA).value % $(inst.stateB).value,
    );
    // This is rebuilt every time that the result of selector is different to previous result.
    return Text("stateA mod stateB: ${value}");
  }
}

BuildContext.select typing can be ommited, but the app must be wrapper by ReactterScope. e.g.:

[...]
ReactterScope(
  child: MyApp(),
)
[...]

class OtherWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  const OtherWidget({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  @override
  Widget? build(BuildContext context) {
    final myController = context.use<MyController>();
    final value = context.select(
      (_, $) => $(myController.stateA).value % $(myController.stateB).value,
    );
    // This is rebuilt every time that the result of selector is different to previous result.
    return Text("stateA mod stateB: ${value}");
  }
}

Custom hooks #

Custom hooks are classes that extend ReactterHook that follow a special naming convention with the use prefix and can contain state logic, effects or any other custom code.

There are several advantages to using Custom Hooks:

  • Reusability: to use the same hook again and again, without the need to write it twice.
  • Clean Code: extracting part of code into a hook will provide a cleaner codebase.
  • Maintainability: easier to maintain. if you need to change the logic of the hook, you only need to change it once.

Here's the counter example:

class UseCount extends ReactterHook {
  final $ = ReactterHook.$register;

  int _count = 0;
  int get value => _count;

  UseCount(int initial) : _count = initial;

  void increment() => update(() => _count += 1);
  void decrement() => update(() => _count -= 1);
}

IMPORTANT: To create a ReactterHook, you need to register it by adding the following line: final $ = ReactterHook.$register;

NOTE: ReactterHook provides an update method which notifies about its changes.

You can then call that custom hook from anywhere in the code and get access to its shared logic:

class MyController {
  final count = UseCount(0);

  MyController() {
    Timer.periodic(Duration(seconds: 1), (_) => count.increment());

    // Print count value every second
    Reactter.on(
      count,
      Lifecycle.didUpdate,
      (_, __) => print("Count: ${count.value}",
    );
  }
}

Lazy state #

A lazy state is a ReactterState(Signal or ReactterHook) that is loaded lazily using Reactter.lazyState.

T Reactter.lazyState<T extends ReactterState>(T stateFn(), Object instance);

Reactter.lazyState is generally used in states declared with the late keyword.

In dart, late keyword is used to declare a variable or field that will be initialized at a later time. It is used to declare a non-nullable variable that is not initialized at the time of declaration.

For example, when the a state declared in a class requires some variable or methods immediately:

class MyController {
  final String initialValue = 'test';
  dynamic resolveValue() async => [...];

  /// late final state = UseAsyncState(
  ///   initialValue,
  ///   resolveValue
  /// ); <- to use `Reactter.lazyState` is required, like:

  late final state = Reactter.lazyState(
    () => UseAsyncState(initialValue, resolveValue),
    this,
  );

  ...
}

IMPORTANT: A state(ReactterState) declared with the late keyword and not using Reactter.lazyState is outside the context of the instance where it was declared, and therefore the instance does not notice about its changes.

Batch #

T Reactter.batch<T>(T Function() callback)

The batch function allows you to combine multiple state changes to be grouped together, ensuring that any associated side effects are only triggered once, improving performance and reducing unnecessary re-renders. e.g.:

final stateA = UseState(0);
final stateB = UseState(0);
final computed = UseCompute(
  () => stateA.value + stateB.value,
  [stateA, stateB],
);

final batchReturned = Reactter.batch(() {
  stateA.value = 1;
  stateB.value = 2;

  print(computed.value); // 0 -> because the batch operation is not completed yet.

  return stateA.value + stateB.value;
});

print(batchReturned); // 3
print(computed.value); // 3 -> because the batch operation is completed.

Batches can be nested and updates will be flushed when the outermost batch call completes. e.g.:

final stateA = UseState(0);
final stateB = UseState(0);
final computed = UseCompute(
  () => stateA.value + stateB.value,
  [stateA, stateB],
);

Reactter.batch(() {
  stateA.value = 1;
  print(computed.value); // 0;

  Reactter.batch(() {
    stateB.value = 2;
    print(computed.value); // 0;
  });

  print(computed.value); // 0;
});

print(computed.value); // 3;

Untracked #

T Reactter.untracked<T>(T Function() callback)

The untracked function helps you to execute the given callback function without tracking any state changes. This means that any state changes that occur inside the callback function will not trigger any side effects. e.g.:

final state = UseState(0);
final computed = UseCompute(() => state.value + 1, [state]);

Reactter.untracked(() {
  state.value = 2;

  print(computed.value); // 1 -> because the state change is not tracked
});

print(computed.value); // 1 -> because the state change is not tracked

Generic arguments #

Generic arguments are objects of the Args class that represent the arguments of the specified types. It is used to define the arguments that are passed through a Function and allows to type the Function appropriately.

RECOMMENDED: If your project supports Record, it is recommended to use it instead of the generic arguments.

Reactter provides theses generic arguments classes:

  • Args<A>: represents one or more arguments of A type.
  • Args1<A> : represents a argument of A type.
  • Args2<A, A2>: represents two arguments of A, A2 type consecutively.
  • Args3<A, A2, A3>: represents three arguments of A, A2, A3 type consecutively.
  • ArgsX2<A>: represents two arguments of A type.
  • ArgsX3<A>: represents three arguments of A type.

In each of the methods it provides theses methods and properties:

  • arguments: gets the list of arguments.
  • toList<T>(): gets the list of arguments T type.
  • arg1: gets the first argument.
  • arg2(Args2, Args3, ArgsX2, ArgsX3 only): gets the second argument.
  • arg3(Args3, ArgsX3 only): gets the third argument.

NOTE: If you need a generic argument class with more arguments, then create a new class following pattern:

class Args+n<A, (...), A+n> extends Args+(n-1)<A, (...), A+(n-1)> {
  final A+n arg+n;

  const Args+n(A arg1, (...), A+(n-1) arg+(n-1), this.arg+n) : super(arg1, (...), arg+(n-1));

  @override
  List get arguments => [...super.arguments, arg+n];
}

typedef ArgX+n<T> = Args+n<T, (...), T>;

e.g. 4 arguments:

class Args4<A, A2, A3, A4> extends Args3<A, A2, A3> {
  final A4 arg4;

  const Args4(A arg1, A2 arg2, A3 arg3, this.arg4) : super(arg1, arg2, arg3);

  @override
  List get arguments => [...super.arguments, arg4];
}

typedef ArgX4<T> = Args4<T, T, T, T>;

NOTE: Use ary Function extention to convert any Function with positional arguments to Function with generic argument, e.g.:

int addNum(int num1, int num2) => num1 + num2;
// convert to `int Function(Args2(int, int))`
final addNumAry = myFunction.ary;
addNumAry(Arg2(1, 1));
// or call directly
addNum.ary(ArgX2(2, 2));

Memo #

Memo is a class callable with memoization logic which it stores computation results in cacbe, and retrieve that same information from the cache the next time it's needed instead of computing it again.

NOTE: Memoization is a powerful trick that can help speed up our code, especially when dealing with repetitive and heavy computing functions.

Memo<T, A>(
  T computeValue(A arg), [
  MemoInterceptor<T, A>? interceptor,
]);

Memo accepts theses properties:

  • computeValue: represents a method that takes an argument of type A and returns a value of T type. This is the core function that will be memoized.
  • interceptor: receives a MemoInterceptor that allows you to intercept the memoization function calls and modify the memoization process. Reactter providers some interceptors:
    • MemoInterceptors: allows multiple memoization interceptors to be used together.
    • MemoInterceptorWrapper: a wrapper for a memoized function that allows you to define callbacks for initialization, successful completion, error handling, and finishing.
    • AsyncMemoSafe: prevents saving in cache if the Future calculation function throws an error during execution.
    • TemporaryCacheMemo: removes memoized values from the cache after a specified duration.

Here an factorial example using Memo:

late final factorialMemo = Memo(calculateFactorial);

/// A factorial(n!) represents the multiplication of all numbers between 1 and n.
/// So if you were to have 3!, for example, you'd compute 3 x 2 x 1 (which = 6).
BigInt calculateFactorial(int number) {
  if (number == 0) return BigInt.one;
  return BigInt.from(number) * factorialMemo(number - 1);
}

void main() {
  // Returns the result of multiplication of 1 to 50.
  final f50 = factorialMemo(50);
  // Returns the result immediately from cache
  // because it was resolved in the previous line.
  final f10 = factorialMemo(10);
  // Returns the result of the multiplication of 51 to 100
  // and 50! which is obtained from the cache(as computed previously by f50).
  final f100 = factorialMemo(100);

  print(
    'Results:\n'
    '\t10!: $f10\n'
    '\t50!: $f50\n'
    '\t100!: $f100\n'
  );
}

NOTE: The computeValue of Memo accepts one argument only. If you want to add more arguments, you can supply it using the Record(if your proyect support) or generic arguments(learn more here).

NOTE: Use Memo.inline in case there is a typing conflict, e.g. with the UseAsynState and UseCompute hooks which a Function type is required.

Memo provides the following methods that will help you manipulate the cache as you wish:

  • T? get(A arg): returns the cached value by arg.
  • T? remove(A arg): removes the cached value by arg.
  • clear: removes all cached data.

Difference between Signal and UseState #

Both UseState and Signal represent a state (ReactterState). However, it possesses distinct features that set them apart.

UseState is a ReactterHook, giving it the unique ability to be extended and enriched with new capabilities, which sets it apart from Signal.

In the case of UseState, it necessitates the use of the value attribute whenever state is read or modified. On the other hand, Signal streamlines this process, eliminating the need for explicit value handling, thus enhancing code clarity and ease of understanding.

In the context of Flutter, when implementing UseState, it is necessary to expose the parent class containing the state to the widget tree via a ReactterProvider or ReactterComponent, and subsequently access it through BuildContext. Conversely, with Signal, which is inherently reactive, you can conveniently employ ReactterWatcher.

It's important to note that while Signal offers distinct advantages, particularly for managing global states and enhancing code readability, it can introduce potential antipatterns and may complicate the debugging process. Nevertheless, these concerns are actively being addressed and improved in upcoming versions of the package.

Ultimately, the choice between UseState and Signal lies in your hands. They can coexist seamlessly, and you have the flexibility to transition from UseState to Signal, or vice versa, as your project's requirements evolve.

Resources #

Contribute #

If you want to contribute don't hesitate to create an issue or pull-request in Reactter repository.

You can:

  • Provide new features.
  • Report bugs.
  • Report situations difficult to implement.
  • Report an unclear error.
  • Report unclear documentation.
  • Add a new custom hook.
  • Add a new widget.
  • Add examples.
  • Translate documentation.
  • Write articles or make videos teaching how to use Reactter.

Any idean is welcome!

Authors #

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Publisher

verified publisher2devs.io

A light, powerful and quick Reactive State Management, Dependency Injection and Event Management.

Repository (GitHub)
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Documentation

API reference

License

MIT (LICENSE)

Dependencies

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